SAMPLE STATISTICS: mean price of lunch (x bar)=$4.49, size (n)=35 shoppers.
POPULATION STATISTIC: standard deviation (σ)=$0.36.
CLAIM: Mean price of lunch is less than $4.65.
COUNTERCLAIM: Mean price of lunch is greater than or equal to $4.65.
Null hypothesis, H₀: µ=$4.65 (from the counterclaim, because greater than or equal specifically includes the equality)
Alternative hypothesis, H₁: µ<$4.65 (the claim)
SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL: ɑ=0.01 (99% confidence level), left tail
TEST STATISTIC: Z=(x bar-µ)/(σ/√n)=(4.49-4.65)/(0.36/√35)=-2.63, which does indeed correspond to a P-value of 0.0043.
ɑ=0.01 (99% confidence level) and sample P-value 0.0043<0.01, which means that H₀ is rejected, and H₁ is accepted to be true. The conclusion is the claim that the mean price of lunch is less than $4.65.